Selanjutnya kita akan memahami perkiraan pembacaan konfigurasi SSH Daemon pada fail2ban. Tujuannya adalah untuk melihat gambaran konfigurasi yang ada di fail2ban.

Pada /etc/fail2ban/paths-common.conf:

default_backend = %(default/backend)s
syslog_authpriv = /var/log/auth.log
sshd_log = %(syslog_authpriv)s
sshd_backend = %(default_backend)s

Pada /etc/fail2ban/jail.conf:


# To use more aggressive sshd modes set filter parameter "mode" in jail.local:
# normal (default), ddos, extra or aggressive (combines all).
# See "tests/files/logs/sshd" or "filter.d/sshd.conf" for usage example and details.
#mode   = normal
port    = ssh
logpath = %(sshd_log)s
backend = %(sshd_backend)s

Pada /etc/fail2ban/jail.local:

# time is in seconds. 3600 = 1 hour, 86400 = 24 hours (1 day)
findtime    = 3600
bantime     = 3600
maxretry    = 5
ignoreip    =

Pada /etc/fail2ban/filter.d/sshd.conf:

# Fail2Ban filter for openssh
# If you want to protect OpenSSH from being bruteforced by password
# authentication then get public key authentication working before disabling
# PasswordAuthentication in sshd_config.
# "Connection from <HOST> port \d+" requires LogLevel VERBOSE in sshd_config


# Read common prefixes. If any customizations available -- read them from
# common.local
before = common.conf


_daemon = sshd

# optional prefix (logged from several ssh versions) like "error: ", "error: PAM: " or "fatal: "
__pref = (?:(?:error|fatal): (?:PAM: )?)?
# optional suffix (logged from several ssh versions) like " [preauth]"
#__suff = (?: port \d+)?(?: \[preauth\])?\s*
__suff = (?: (?:port \d+|on \S+|\[preauth\])){0,3}\s*
__on_port_opt = (?: (?:port \d+|on \S+)){0,2}
# close by authenticating user:
__authng_user = (?: (?:invalid|authenticating) user <F-USER>\S+|.+?</F-USER>)?

# for all possible (also future) forms of "no matching (cipher|mac|MAC|compression method|key exchange method|host key type) found",
# see ssherr.c for all possible SSH_ERR_..._ALG_MATCH errors.
__alg_match = (?:(?:\w+ (?!found\b)){0,2}\w+)

# PAM authentication mechanism, can be overridden, e. g. `filter = sshd[__pam_auth='pam_ldap']`:
__pam_auth = pam_[a-z]+


prefregex = ^<F-MLFID>%(__prefix_line)s</F-MLFID>%(__pref)s<F-CONTENT>.+</F-CONTENT>$

cmnfailre = ^[aA]uthentication (?:failure|error|failed) for <F-USER>.*</F-USER> from <HOST>( via \S+)?%(__suff)s$
            ^User not known to the underlying authentication module for <F-USER>.*</F-USER> from <HOST>%(__suff)s$
            ^Failed publickey for invalid user <F-USER>(?P<cond_user>\S+)|(?:(?! from ).)*?</F-USER> from <HOST>%(__on_port_opt)s(?: ssh\d*)?(?(cond_user): |(?:(?:(?! from ).)*)$)
            ^Failed \b(?!publickey)\S+ for (?P<cond_inv>invalid user )?<F-USER>(?P<cond_user>\S+)|(?(cond_inv)(?:(?! from ).)*?|[^:]+)</F-USER> from <HOST>%(__on_port_opt)s(?: ssh\d*)?(?(cond_user): |(?:(?:(?! from ).)*)$)
            ^[iI](?:llegal|nvalid) user <F-USER>.*?</F-USER> from <HOST>%(__suff)s$
            ^User <F-USER>.+</F-USER> from <HOST> not allowed because not listed in AllowUsers%(__suff)s$
            ^User <F-USER>.+</F-USER> from <HOST> not allowed because listed in DenyUsers%(__suff)s$
            ^User <F-USER>.+</F-USER> from <HOST> not allowed because not in any group%(__suff)s$
            ^refused connect from \S+ \(<HOST>\)
            ^Received <F-MLFFORGET>disconnect</F-MLFFORGET> from <HOST>%(__on_port_opt)s:\s*3: .*: Auth fail%(__suff)s$
            ^User <F-USER>.+</F-USER> from <HOST> not allowed because a group is listed in DenyGroups%(__suff)s$
            ^User <F-USER>.+</F-USER> from <HOST> not allowed because none of user's groups are listed in AllowGroups%(__suff)s$
            ^<F-NOFAIL>%(__pam_auth)s\(sshd:auth\):\s+authentication failure;</F-NOFAIL>(?:\s+(?:(?:logname|e?uid|tty)=\S*)){0,4}\s+ruser=<F-ALT_USER>\S*</F-ALT_USER>\s+rhost=<HOST>(?:\s+user=<F-USER>\S*</F-USER>)?%(__suff)s$
            ^(error: )?maximum authentication attempts exceeded for <F-USER>.*</F-USER> from <HOST>%(__on_port_opt)s(?: ssh\d*)?%(__suff)s$
            ^User <F-USER>.+</F-USER> not allowed because account is locked%(__suff)s
            ^<F-MLFFORGET>Disconnecting</F-MLFFORGET>(?: from)?(?: (?:invalid|authenticating)) user <F-USER>\S+</F-USER> <HOST>%(__on_port_opt)s:\s*Change of username or service not allowed:\s*.*\[preauth\]\s*$
            ^<F-MLFFORGET>Disconnecting</F-MLFFORGET>: Too many authentication failures(?: for <F-USER>.+?</F-USER>)?%(__suff)s$
            ^<F-NOFAIL>Received <F-MLFFORGET>disconnect</F-MLFFORGET></F-NOFAIL> from <HOST>%(__on_port_opt)s:\s*11:
            ^<F-MLFFORGET><F-MLFGAINED>Accepted \w+</F-MLFGAINED></F-MLFFORGET> for <F-USER>\S+</F-USER> from <HOST>(?:\s|$)

mdre-normal =
# used to differentiate "connection closed" with and without `[preauth]` (fail/nofail cases in ddos mode)
mdre-normal-other = ^<F-NOFAIL><F-MLFFORGET>(Connection closed|Disconnected)</F-MLFFORGET></F-NOFAIL> (?:by|from)%(__authng_user)s <HOST>(?:%(__suff)s|\s*)$

mdre-ddos = ^Did not receive identification string from <HOST>
            ^Bad protocol version identification '.*' from <HOST>
            ^Connection <F-MLFFORGET>reset</F-MLFFORGET> by <HOST>
            ^<F-NOFAIL>SSH: Server;Ltype:</F-NOFAIL> (?:Authname|Version|Kex);Remote: <HOST>-\d+;[A-Z]\w+:
            ^Read from socket failed: Connection <F-MLFFORGET>reset</F-MLFFORGET> by peer
# same as mdre-normal-other, but as failure (without <F-NOFAIL>) and [preauth] only:
mdre-ddos-other = ^<F-MLFFORGET>(Connection closed|Disconnected)</F-MLFFORGET> (?:by|from)%(__authng_user)s <HOST>%(__on_port_opt)s\s+\[preauth\]\s*$

mdre-extra = ^Received <F-MLFFORGET>disconnect</F-MLFFORGET> from <HOST>%(__on_port_opt)s:\s*14: No supported authentication methods available
            ^Unable to negotiate with <HOST>%(__on_port_opt)s: no matching <__alg_match> found.
            ^Unable to negotiate a <__alg_match>
            ^no matching <__alg_match> found:
# part of mdre-ddos-other, but user name is supplied (invalid/authenticating) on [preauth] phase only:
mdre-extra-other = ^<F-MLFFORGET>Disconnected</F-MLFFORGET>(?: from)?(?: (?:invalid|authenticating)) user <F-USER>\S+|.*?</F-USER> <HOST>%(__on_port_opt)s \[preauth\]\s*$

mdre-aggressive = %(mdre-ddos)s
# mdre-extra-other is fully included within mdre-ddos-other:
mdre-aggressive-other = %(mdre-ddos-other)s

cfooterre = ^<F-NOFAIL>Connection from</F-NOFAIL> <HOST>

failregex = %(cmnfailre)s

# Parameter "mode": normal (default), ddos, extra or aggressive (combines all)
# Usage example (for jail.local):
#   [sshd]
#   mode = extra
#   # or another jail (rewrite filter parameters of jail):
#   [sshd-aggressive]
#   filter = sshd[mode=aggressive]
mode = normal

#filter = sshd[mode=aggressive]

ignoreregex = 

maxlines = 1

journalmatch = _SYSTEMD_UNIT=sshd.service + _COMM=sshd

# DEV Notes:
#   "Failed \S+ for .*? from <HOST>..." failregex uses non-greedy catch-all because
#   it is coming before use of <HOST> which is not hard-anchored at the end as well,
#   and later catch-all's could contain user-provided input, which need to be greedily
#   matched away first.
# Author: Cyril Jaquier, Yaroslav Halchenko, Petr Voralek, Daniel Black and Sergey Brester aka sebres
# Rewritten using prefregex (and introduced "mode" parameter) by Serg G. Brester.

Pada /etc/fail2ban/jail.d/sshd.local:

enabled     = true
filter      = sshd
action      = iptables-multiport[name=sshd, port="1022", protocol=tcp]
logpath     = /var/log/secure

Pada /etc/fail2ban/action.d/iptables-multiport.conf:

# Fail2Ban configuration file
# Author: Cyril Jaquier
# Modified by Yaroslav Halchenko for multiport banning


before = iptables-common.conf


# Option:  actionstart
# Notes.:  command executed on demand at the first ban (or at the start of Fail2Ban if actionstart_on_demand is set to false).
# Values:  CMD
actionstart = <iptables> -N f2b-<name>
              <iptables> -A f2b-<name> -j <returntype>
              <iptables> -I <chain> -p <protocol> -m multiport --dports <port> -j f2b-<name>

# Option:  actionstop
# Notes.:  command executed at the stop of jail (or at the end of Fail2Ban)
# Values:  CMD
actionstop = <iptables> -D <chain> -p <protocol> -m multiport --dports <port> -j f2b-<name>
             <iptables> -X f2b-<name>

# Option:  actioncheck
# Notes.:  command executed once before each actionban command
# Values:  CMD
actioncheck = <iptables> -n -L <chain> | grep -q 'f2b-<name>[ \t]'

# Option:  actionban
# Notes.:  command executed when banning an IP. Take care that the
#          command is executed with Fail2Ban user rights.
# Tags:    See jail.conf(5) man page
# Values:  CMD
actionban = <iptables> -I f2b-<name> 1 -s <ip> -j <blocktype>

# Option:  actionunban
# Notes.:  command executed when unbanning an IP. Take care that the
#          command is executed with Fail2Ban user rights.
# Tags:    See jail.conf(5) man page
# Values:  CMD
actionunban = <iptables> -D f2b-<name> -s <ip> -j <blocktype>


Bebarapa catatan dari konfigurasi di atas:
1. File log  SSHD yang dianalisa oleh fail2ban adalah /var/log/secure
2. File log itu akan dianalisa oleh filter /etc/fail2ban/filter.d/sshd.conf
3. Jika 5 kali gagal login akan ditindaklanjuti action iptables-multiport yang ada di /etc/fail2ban/action.d/iptables-multiport.conf

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Konfigurasi SSHD pada fail2ban